Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor, Shahid Beheshti University.

2 M.A. Shahid Beheshti University.

3 M.A. Islamic Azad University.


Intellectual capital is used to create and increase business value and the success of an organization depends on its ability to manage scarce resources and more importantly, through these scarce resources can achieve a competitive advantage in their business areas. The present study examines the impact of intellectual capital on competitive advantage through innovation capacity. In terms of type, this research is a descriptive – correlation. Survey of all managers Kerman's food industrial estates are a total of 97 samples were considered as directors and Data were collected through questionnaire and analysis of information and software PLS regression was used. The results of this study indicate that the application of intellectual capital to achieve competitive advantage in small businesses facilitate through the innovation capacity of businesses.


1. Abdullah, D. F. & Sofian, S. (2012). The Relationship between Intellectual Capital and Corporate Perfermance. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Science, 40: 537-541.
2. Adcock, D. (2000). Marketing Strategies for Competitive Advantage, Wiley.
3. Adel, G. & Habib, A. (2016). Mediating role of Entrepreneurial orientation on the relationship between Relational Network and competitive advantages of Tunisian Contractors. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 28(4): 1-15.
4. Alpkan, L., Bulut, C., GUlusoy, G. & Kilic, K. (2010). Organizational support for intrapreneurship and its interaction with human capital to enhance innovative performance. Management dicision, 48(5): 732-755.
5. Arasti, Mohammad Reza, Karimpour, Azita and Qureshi, Babak (2009). Identification of Factors Influencing the Innovation Capacity of Business Enterprises: A Case Study of Iranian Industrial Automation Companies, Quarterly. Journal of Management Science: 4(15).)In Persion)
6. BarNir, A. (2012). Starting technologically innovative ventures: reasons, human capital, and gender. Management Decision, 50(3): 399-419.
7. Boly, V., Morel, L. & Renaud, J. (2003). Towards a Constructivist Approach to Technological Innovation Management: An Overview of the Phenomena in French SME’s. International Handbook on Innovation, Elsevier.
8. Bontis, N. (1998). Intellectual capital: an exploratory study that develops measures and models. Management decision, 36(2): 63-76.
9. Bontis, N. & Serenko, A. (2009). A Causal model of human capital antecedents and consequents in the financial services industry. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 10(1): 53-69.
10. Bontis, N., Keow, W. C. C. & RIChardson, S. (2000). Intellectual capital and Business performance in Malaysian Industries. Journal of Intellectual capital, 1(1): 85-100.
11. Bontis, N., Dargonetti, N. C., Jacobsen, K. & Roos, G. (1999). The knowledge toolbox: A review of the tools available to measure and manage intangible resource. European Management Journal, 17(4): 391-402
12. Bosma, N., Hessels, J., Schutjens, V., Praag, M. V. & Verheul, I. (2012). Entrepreneurship and role models. Journal of Economic Psychology, 33(2): 410- 424.
13. Campbell, B. A., Coff, R. & Kryscynski, D. (2012). Rethinking Sustained Competitive Advantage from Human Capital. Academy of Management Review, 37(3): 376-395.
14. Cater, T. (2001). Knowledge Management as a Means of developing a firm’s competitves advantage. Management6(1-2): 133-153.
15. Chen, J., Zhu, Z. & Xie, H. Y. (2004). Measuring intellectual capital: a new model and empirical study. Journal of Intellectual capital, 5(1): 195-212.
16. Dalziel, T., Gentry, R. J. & Bowerman, M. (2011). An Integrated Agency Resource Dependence View of the Influence of Directors' Human and Relational Capital on Firms' R&D Spending. Journal of Management Studies, 48(6): 1217-1242.
17. De-Castro, M., Delgado-Verde, G., López-Sáez, M., & Navas-López, J. E. (2011). Toward "an intellectual capital-based view of the firm" :origins and nature. Journal of business ethics, 98(4): 649-662.
18. Diez, J. M., Ochoa, M. L., Prieto, M. B. & Santidrián, A. (2010). Intellectual capital and value creation in Spanish firms. Journal of intellectual capital, 11(3): 348-367.
19. Doong, S. C., Fung, H. G. & Wu. J. Y. (2011). Are social, financial, and human capital value enhancing? Evidence from Taiwanese firms. International Review of Economics & Finance, 20(3): 395-405.
20. Edvinsson, L. & Malone, M. (1997). Intellectual capital: Realizing your Company’s True value by Finding its Hidden Brain Prower, Harper collins Publisher Inc, New York.
21. Feizi, K. & Hadavand, M. (2012). The Effects of Supply Chain Power Components on Competitive Advantages and Organizational Competitiveness; a Case Study of IranKhodro Company. Journal of Business Management Perspective, 12: 13-36.) In Persion)
22. Fidel, P., Cervera, A. & Schlesinger, W. (2016). Customer’s role in knowledge management and in the innovation process: effects on innovation capacity and marketing results. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 14(2): 195-203.
23. Furman, J. L., Porter M. E. & Stern, S. (2002). The determinants of national innovation capacity. Research Policy, 31(1): 899-933.
24. Ghasemi Sardar, Ahmadi Kohanali Reza, (1393). Assessment of agility of various industries in small and medium sized manufacturing companies. Journal of Industrial Management Perspective, 15: 109-129. )In Persion)
25. Ghelichlee, B. & Rajabi Shahabadi, E. (1393). Study of the Relationship between Knowledge Creation, Technology-Based Innovation and Organizational Agility (Case Study of Iran Alloy Steel Co.). Journal of Industrial Management Perspective. 16: 95-116.) In Persion).
26. Gupta, O. & Roos, G. (2001). Mergers and acquisitions through an Intellectual capital perspective. Journal of Intellectual capital, 2(3): 297-309.
27. Haji Karimi, A. A. & Bhutahi, A. (2009). Management of Intellectual Capital (Strategic Advantage of Organizational Value-Oriented (Concepts and Applications), Tehran: Commercial Publishing, First Edition. (In Persion)
28. Haji Karimi, A., Khorshidi, Gh. H. & Mohammadian, B. (1395). The Influence of Intellectual Capital Dimensions on the Performance of New Product Development with the Moderator of the Depression of Science. Journal of Business Management Perspective, 26: 13-31. )In Persion).
29. Hamel, G. & Prahalad, C. K. (1994). Competing for the Future. Boston: Harvard Business School press.
30. Hsu, Y. H. & Fang, W. (2009). Intellectual capital and new product development performance: The mediating role of organizational learning capability. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 76(5): 664-677.
31. Hughes, M. & Morgan, R. (2007). Deconstructing the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and business performance at the embryonic stage of firm growth. Industrial Marketing Management, 36(3): 651-661.
32. Hurley, R. & Hult, G. (1998). Innovation, market orientation, and organizational learning: an integration and empirical examination. Journal of Marketing, 62)3): 42-54.
33. Inkpen, A. C. (1998). Learning and knowledge Acquisition through international strategic alliances. Academy of Management Executive 12(4): 144-159.
34. Koc, T. & Ceylan, C. (2007). Factors Impacting the Innovative Capacity in Large Scale Companies. Technovation: 27(2).
35. Lank, E. (1997). Leveraging invisible assets: The human factor. Long Range Planning, 30(3): 406-412.
36. Lim, l. l. k. & Dallimore, P. (2004). Intellectual capital: management attitudes in ServICe Industries, Journal of Intellectual capital, 5(1): 181-194.
37. Lussier, R. N. & Corman, J. (2015). A business success versus failure prediction model for entrepreneurs with 0-10 employees. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 7(1): 21-36.
38. Marques, C. S. & Ferreira, J. (2009). SME innovative capacity, competitive advantage and performance in a'traditional'industrial region of Portugal. Journal of technology management & innovation, 4(4): 53-68.
39. Marr, B. (2004). Measuring and Benchmarking Intellectual. Benchmarking: an International Journal, 11(6): 559-570.
40. Marr, B., Schiuma, G. & Neely, A. (2004). Intellectual capital defining key performance indicators for organizational knowledge assets. Business Process Management Journal, 10(5): 551-569.
41. Mills, R. (1996). Minimalist definitions. Tmi unit, university of Waikato, New Zealand.
42. Mintzberg, H. (1991). The strategy process: concepts, contexts and cases. Prentice-Hall.
43. Momeni, M. & Qiyomi, A. (2010). Statistical analysis using SPSS, Tehran: New Book Publishing, First Edition. )In Persion)
44. Moshbeki, A. & Gelichlee, B. (2007). Competitive Advantage: Explaining the Role of Intellectual Capital and Social Capital (Case Study of Two Iranian Automobile Companies). Modares Journal of Humanities, 11(3): 233-260. )In Persion)
45. Mosleh Shirazi, Ali N. & Khalifeh, M. (1394). Measuring the Effectiveness of Global Competitiveness of Iran Compared to Selected Countries Using Two-Stage Model of Data Envelopment Analysis. Journal of Industrial Management Perspective: 19-117. )In Persion).
46. Mouritesen, J. (1998). Driving growth: economIC value added versus Intellectual capital. Management a ccounting Research, 9: 461-482.
47. Nasution, H., Mavondo, F., Matanda, M. & Ndubisi, N. (2011). Entrepreneurship: its relationship with market orientation and learning orientation and as antecedents to innovation and customer value. IndustrialMarketingManagement, 40(3): 336-345.
48. Ndubisi, N. & Iftikhar, K. (2012). Relationship between entrepreneurship, innovation and performance comparing small and medium-size enterprises. Journal of Research inMarketing and Entrepreneurship, 14(2): 214-236.
49. Oura, M. M., Zilber, S. N. & Lopes, E. L. (2016). Innovation capacity, international experience and export performance of SMEs in Brazil. International Business Review, 25(4): 921-932.
50. Phusavat, K., Comepa, N., Sitko-Lutek, A. & Ooi, K. B. (2011). Interrelationships between intellectual capital and performance: Empirical examination. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 111(6): 810-829.
51. Porter, M. (1990). The competitive advantage of nations. macmilan.
52. Porter, M. (1985). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. Free Press, New York.
53. Rexhepi, G., Ibraimi, S. & Veseli, N. (2013). Role of Intellectual Capital in Creating Enterprise Strategy. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 75(4): 5-44.
54. Roos, G. and Roos, J. (1997). Measuring Your Company’s Intellectual Performance, Long Range Planning, 30(3): 413-426.
55. Roos, G., Roos, J., Edvinsson, L. & Dragonetti, N. C. (1997). Intellectual capital-Navigating in new Business landscape. New York university press, New York.
56. Saeed Ardakani, S. (1393). The Effect of Intellectual Capital on Organizational Performance; a Case Study of Central Iranian Iron Ore Companies. Journal of Business Management Perspective, 18: 167-183. )In Persion) 
57. Sambasivan, M., Siew-Phaik, L., Mohamed, Z. A. & Leong, Y. C. (2011). Impact of interdependence between supply chain partners on strategic alliance outcomes: role of relational capital as a mediating construct. Management Decision, 49(4): 548-569.
58. Sanchez, P., Chaminade, C. & Olea, M. (2000). Management of intangibles-An attempt to build a theory. Journal of intellectual capital, 1(4): 312-327.
59. Seetharaman, A., Sooria, H. H. B. Z. & Saravanan, A. S. (2002). Intellectual capital accounting and Reporting in the knowledge economy. Journal of Intellectual capital, 3(2): 128-148.
60. Stewart, T. (1997). Intellectual capital: The New Wealth of Organization, Doubleday/Currency, New York.
61. Sullivan J. P. H. & Sullivan S. P. H. (2000). Valuing intangible companies: an intellectual capital approach. Journal of Intellectual capital, 1(4): 328-340.
62. Tan, H. P., Plowman, D. & Hancock, P. (2008). The evolving research on intellectual capital. Journal of intellectual capital, 9(4): 585-608.
63. Ucbasaran, D., Westhead, P. & Wright, M. (2009). The extent and nature of opportunity identification by experienced entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(2): 99-115.
64. Unger, J. M., Rauch, A., Frese, M. & Rosenbusch, N. (2011). Human capital and entrepreneurial success: A meta-analytical review. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(3): 341-358.
65. Vinzi, V. E., Chin, W. W., Henseler, J. & Wang, H. (2010). Handbook of Partial Least Squares. Berlin: Springer.
66. Wiig, K. (1997). Integrating intellectual capital and knowledge management. Lang Range planning, 30(3): 399-405.
67. Youndt, M. A. & Snell, S. A. (2004). Human resource configurations, intellectual capital, and organizational performance. Journal of Managerial Issues, 16(3): 337-360.
68. Zack, M. H. (1999). Developing a knowledge strategy. California, Management Review 41(3): 125-145.