Evaluating the Resilience and Sustainability of the Supply Chain with the Integrated Approach of the Theory of Constraints, Process Approach and Multi-Criteria Decision Making (Case of Study: Offshore Sector of the Oil Industry)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Industrial Management, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Industrial Management, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Industrial Management, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.



Introduction: Supply chain disruption is an event that disrupts the production of goods and services. Resilience refers to the ability of an organization to manage disruptions or the ability of the supply chain network to quickly return to its previous state, ultimately positively impacting the company's performance. Many companies cannot maintain productivity during disruptions, losing competitiveness, increasing business continuity risk, and incurring financial losses. Sustainability considerations in supply chain operations have become a key issue. A common concept in sustainability is the triple approach: economic, environmental, and social, which must be observed by supply chain members. Sustainable supply chain management development is not a limiting factor but an approach to improve performance.
Methods: This applied research study was conducted using a mixed qualitative-quantitative analysis with a cross-sectional survey method. The qualitative sample included academic and industry experts, while the quantitative sample comprised managers, heads, and experts in the studied company's headquarters, operations, and projects. Data collection tools included documentary studies, expert surveys, and a researcher-made questionnaire. Factors were identified using the meta-synthesis technique, screened with the fuzzy Delphi technique, and validated with partial least squares. The SWARA method was used for weighting and ranking factors. Supply chain processes were defined based on the SCOR model and ranked using the WASPAS method. The thinking process tools identified limitations in the third-level bottleneck process, and improvement solutions were presented.
Results and Discussion: The meta-synthesis method extracted the desired indicators, which were screened and localized using the fuzzy Delphi technique and confirmed by experts in 7 dimensions and 39 indicators. The initial model was validated with partial least squares. Among resilience and sustainability factors, the "Risk Management" dimension with a weight of 0.2241 and the "Considering the risk factor in decision-making" index with a weight of 0.1224 were the top priorities. It was concluded that risk management is crucial for business continuity and dynamism. Supply chain managers should facilitate their participation in identifying and controlling risks and opportunities while continually increasing their subordinates' knowledge and skills. Evaluations identified the "sourcing and supply process," "goods and logistics supply process," and "purchase planning" as the most critical bottleneck processes. The root of disruptions in the "purchase planning" process was found to be in the identification, estimation, and allocation of human, infrastructural, and financial resources.
 Conclusions: Practical suggestions for company managers and decision-makers include employing expert personnel in purchasing planning, drafting executive plans, using advanced tools for measurement, analysis, forecasting, resource allocation, identifying uncertainties, determining prerequisites, and managing main and support suppliers and changes, and reviewing and modifying the existing mechanism.


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