طراحی شبکه زنجیره تأمین چنددوره‌ای و چند‌محصولی با در‌نظر‌گرفتن اختلال در تسهیلات و مسیرهای ارتباطی (موردمطالعه: طرح اشتراک نشریات)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران.

2 دانشیار، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران.

چکیده

یکی از مهم‌ترین چالش‌های مسئله‌ طراحی شبکه زنجیره تأمین، وقوع اختلالات احتمالی و آسیب‌های ناشی از آن است. در این پژوهش طراحی شبکه زنجیره تأمین با در‌نظر‌گرفتن حداقل میزان دریافت به‌عنوان رضایت مشتری مدنظر بوده است. برای مقابله با اختلال از سه روش تأسیس تسهیلات جدید، استفاده از قرارداد دوجانبه و تسهیلات موجود در بازار خدمات لحظه‌ای استفاده‌ شده است. بدین منظور یک مدل برنامه‌ریزی خطی مختلط عدد صحیح فرموله شده و طرح اشتراک نشریات به­عنوان مورد مطالعه بررسی شد. یافته‌ها نشان می‌دهد که در شرایط بروز اختلال سه حالت متفاوت رخ می‌دهد: نخست اینکه هزینه اختلال کم باشد که در این شرایط به‌صرفه خواهد بود از بین بازار لحظه‌ای و پذیرش کمبود یکی انتخاب شود؛ دوم اینکه هزینه‌ اختلال و کمبود بالا بوده، اما کمتر از میزان بودجه برای تأسیس تسهیلات باشد که در این حالت از قراردادهای دوجانبه استفاده می‌شود؛ و در حالت سوم  هزینه‌های اختلال و کمبود آن‌قدر بالاست که تأسیس تسهیلات، به‌صرفه خواهد بود. باید توجه داشت با بالا­رفتن تقاضا و یا افزایش احتمال وقوع اختلال، فاصله هزینه‌ای بین استفاده از تسهیل پشتیبان موجود در قرارداد دوجانبه و یا خرید خدمت از بازار لحظه‌ای با تأسیس تسهیل جدید کاهش ‌یافته و سپس تأسیس تسهیلات جدید به‌صرفه‌تر خواهد بود.

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